Thakur Prasad Singh College, Patna

A constituent unit of Magadh University, Bodh-Gaya (Bihar) India
Chirayatand,Patna-800001, Bihar
Phone No:0612-2353295, Website:tpscollege.com

T.P.S College, Patna

Computer Fundamental

What is computer ?
A computer is an electronic device . Which is capable of receiving information ( data ) in a particular form and of performing a sequence of operation in accordance with a predetermined but variable set of procedural instruction ( program ) to produce a result in the form of information or signals .
or
Computer is an electronic device that is designed to work with information . The term computer is derived from the latin term ‘compute’ this means to calculate or programmable machine . Computer cannot do anything without a program . It represent the decimal number through a string of binary digits . The word “computer” usually refer to the processor unit plus internal memory .
Comparison between computer and human brain.
1. Both are used for storage and processing of information and execute tasks.
2. Both play a very important role in society.
3. Both works with electrical signal in computer mendiante use the brain system and the human brain through neuron to neuron.
4. Computer can only follow instruction and pattern made by programmers , while the brain behaves freely using reasoning and common sense.
5. The computer is evolving everyday as the brain , although it is possible evolve practically hasn’t Change at all.
6. It is impossible for the brain to function without emotion while computer only act under the logic.
7. The computer can be continuously updated and evolve with the development of technology , while brain cannot be updated.
Characteristics of computer .
The characteristics of computer that have made them so powerful and universally useful are speed , accuracy , diligence , versatility and storage capacity . Let us discuss them briefly computer work at an incredible speed . A powerful computer is capable of performing about 3-4 million simple instruction per second .
Characteristics of computer .
1. Speed :- In general , no human being can compute to solving the complex computation , faster than the computer .
2. Accuracy :- Since computer is programmed , so what ever input we given it gives result with accurately .
3. Diligence :- Computer can works for hours without any break and creating error .
4. Versatility :- We can use computer to perform completely different types of works at the same time.
5. Power of remembering :- It can remember data for us .
6. No IQ :- Computer doesn’t work without instruction .
7. No feeling :- Computer doesn’t have emotion , knowledge , experience , feeling .
Computer Application
“Simply put, an app is a type of software that allow you to perform specific tasks. Application for desktop or laptop computer are sometimes called desktop application , While those for mobile device are called app . When you open an application ,it runs inside the operating system until you close it .” Computer application is one of several academic event sanctioned by the university interscholastic league computer application is designed to test the student abilities to use word processing , Spreadsheet and database application software , including integration of application . It is not the same as the computer science contest which test programming abilities . Computer application began during the 1994-1995 scholastic year , replacing the keyboarding contest previously held by UIL .
History of computers
Initial development of computer
Actually speaking electronic data processing does not go back more than just half a century . i.e. they are in existence merely from early 1940s . In early days when our ancestor used to reside in cave the counting was a problem . Still it is started becoming difficult when they started using stone to count their animals or the possession they never knew that this day will lead to a computer of today . People today started following a set of procedure to perform calculation with these stone . Which later led to creation of digital counting device , which was the predecessor the first calculating device invented we known as ABACUS .
The ABACUS
ABACUS is known to be the first mechanical calculating device . Which was used to be performed addition and subtraction easily and speedy . This device was a first developed by the EGY PTEAN in the 10th century .
PASCAL’S CALCULATOR
In the year 1642 BLAISE PASCAL a French scientist invented an adding machine called PASCAL’s calculator .
LEIBNZ CALCULATOR
In the year 1671 , a german mathematics GOTTFRIED LEIBNZ modified the PASCAL’S Calculator .
ANALYTICAL ENGINE
In the year 1833 , a scientist from England known to be CHARLES BABBAGE invented such a machine . Which could keep our data safely . This device was called analytical engine and it deemed the first mechanical computer . For this great invention of the computer sir CHARLES BABBAGE is also known as the father of the computer .
S.no Generation of computer
1 First generation – The period of first generation 1946-1959 , vacuum tube based .
2 Second generation – The period of second generation 1959- 1965 , transistor based .
3 Third generation – The period of third generation 1965-1971 , integrated circuit based .
4 Fourth generation – The period of fourth generation 1971-1980 , microprocessor based .
5 Fifth generation – The period of fifth generation 1980 onwards , ULSI microprocessor based .