Thakur Prasad Singh College, Patna

A constituent unit of Magadh University, Bodh-Gaya (Bihar) India
Chirayatand,Patna-800001, Bihar
Phone No:0612-2353295,

T.P.S College, Patna


The period of first generation was 1946-1959 . The computer of first generation used to vacuum tubes as the basic components for memory and circuit for CPU . These tubes likes electronic bulbs produced a lot of heat and were prone of frequent fusing of installation ,therefore were very expensive and could be afforded only by very large organization . In this generation mainly batch processing operation system were used punched card paper tape , and magnetic device . The computer in this generation used machine code as programming language .
The main features of first generation are as follow :
1. Vacuum tube technology
2. Unreliable
3. Supported machine language only
4. Very costly
5. Generated lot of heat
6. Slow input and output device
7. Huge size
8. Consume lot of electricity
Some computer of this generation
4. IBM-701
5. IBM -650
The period of second generation was 1959-1965 . In this generation transistor were used that were cheaper consumed user power more compact in size , more reliable and faster than first generation machine made of vacuum tube . In this generation magnetic core were used as primary memory and magnetic tape and magnetic disk as secondary storage device . In this generation assembly language and high level programming language like FORTRAN , COBOL were used . The computer used batch processing and multi programming operating system .
The main features of second generation are as follow:
1. Use of transistor
2. Reliable and smaller in comparison of first generation .
3. Generated less heat as compared to first generation .
4. Consumed less hear as compared to first generation .
5. Faster than first generation .
6. Still very costly
7. AC needed
8. Supported machine language and assembly language .
Some computer of this generation are as follow :
The period of third generation was 1965-1971 . The computer of third generation used integrated circuit ( Ics ) in place of transistor . A single IC has many transistor , register and capacitor along with the associated circuitry . The IC was invented by JACK KILBY . This development made computer smaller in size , reliable and efficiency in this generation remote processing , time sharing , multi programming operating system were used . High level language ( FORTRAN –II to IV , COBOL , PASCAL PL/I , BASIC , ALGOL-68 , etc ) were used during this generation .
The main features of this generation are as follow :
1. IC used
2. More reliable in comparison of previous two generation .
3. Generated less heat , smaller in size
4. Faster , lesser maintain
5. Still costly , AC needed
6. Consumed less electricity
7. Support HLL ( high level language )
Some computer of this generation are as follow :
1. IBM-360 series
2. Honey well 600 series
3. PDP
4. IBM-370/168
The period of fourth generation was 1971-1980 . The computer of fourth generation used very large scale integrated ( VLSI ) circuit . VLSI circuit having 5000 transistor and other circuit element and their associated circuit on a single chip made it possible to have micro computer of fourth generation . Fourth generation becomes more powerful compact , reliable and affordable as a circuit . It gave rise to personal computer ( PC ) revolution . In this generation time sharing , real time , Network distributive operating system were used . All the HGL like C , C++ , DBASE ,etc were used in this generation .
The main features of this generation are as follow :
1. VLSI technology
2. Very cheap , portable and reliable
3. Used of PCs , very small size
4. Pipeline processing , No AC needed
5. Concept of internet was introduced
6. Great development in this field of network
Some computer of this generation are as follow :
2.STAR 1000
4.CRAY-I , CRAY –X-MP (super computer )
The period of fifth generation was 1980-onwards till date . In this generation the VLSI technology becomes ULSI ( ultra large scale integration ) technology , resulting in the production of microprocessor chip having ten million electronic component . This generation is based on parallel processing hardware and AI ( artificial intelligence ) software AI is an emerging branch in computer science , which interpret means and method of mailing computer thinking like human being . All the HLL like C and C++ , .net , etc are used in this generation .
The main features of this generation are as follow :
1. AI includes , Robotics
2. Neural network
3. Development of expert system to make decision in real life situation .
4. Natural language understanding .
5. Advancement in super conductor technology .
6. More user friendly interface with multimedia features .
7. Availability of very powerful and compact computer of cheaper rates .
Some computer of this generation are as follow:
1. Desktop
2. Laptop
3. Notebook
4. Ultrabook
5. Chromo book